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298                  HISTORY OF PERSIA                  CHAP.
negative results were perhaps of some value, as it was
proved once more that owing to bad and dangerous
communications and the great distance the trade would
not be profitable.
The Uzbegs.—At the very end of the sixteenth century
there was a change in the dynasty of the Uzbegs. When
the Russians absorbed the Khanate of Astrakhan, the
dispossessed chief took refuge at Bokhara, where he was
warmly welcomed by Iskandar, the last monarch of the
Shaybanid dynasty. Jani Khan, son of the refugee prince,
married the daughter of Iskandar, and after the murder
of the latter was offered the throne ; he, however, declined
it in favour of his son, who founded the Astrakhan
dynasty, which lasted until the end of the eighteenth
century. The relations of Bokhara with Persia were
unchanged, invasions by the Uzbegs into Khorasan being
undertaken with varying success. In A.H. 1017 (1608)
a great sovereign appeared in the person of Imam Kuli,
who seized the throne, and during his reign of thirty-
eight years Bokhara recovered some part of her ancient
wealth and prosperity. His rule was not aggressive and
only one raid into Khorasan is mentioned, which was
repulsed by the generals of Shah Safi. But greater
success was met with at Kandahar, where the Persian
Governor evacuated the city upon the approach of the
Uzbegs and, marching off with the garrison to Delhi,
entered the service of the Moghul Emperor.
The Capture of Hamadan by the Turks, A.H. 1039
(1630).—During the reign of Shah Safi another of the
almost constant wars with Turkey broke out. At this
period the throne of Othman was occupied by Murad IV.,
the last fighting sultan, whose offensive policy was a
serious menace to Persia. The first campaign was
•directed against Hamadan. The Turkish army marched
to Mosul, where it was delayed by heavy rains. It then
entered Kurdistan, defeated a Persian army, and in A.H.
1039 (1630) captured Hamadan.
The inhabitants of the ancient capital of Media were
massacred and the city was sacked for six days, during
which the buildings were destroyed and even the trees